Development and optimisation of a sex pheromone lure for monitoring populations of saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata

Rowley, C.; Pope, T.W.; Cherrill, A.; Leather, S.R.; Fernández-Grandon, G.M. and Hall, D.R. (2017) Development and optimisation of a sex pheromone lure for monitoring populations of saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 163 (1). pp. 82-92.

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/eea.12560

Abstract

Saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a sporadic pest of cereals in Northern and Central Europe and is of increasing importance in the UK. Recently, the major component of the sex pheromone produced by adult female H. marginata was reported to be 2-nonyl butyrate. The importance of absolute configuration on attractiveness, the effects on trap catches of the addition of minor pheromone components, dispenser type, and pheromone loading are described in the development of an optimised pheromone lure with which to trap H. marginata males. In analyses of volatiles collected from virgin female H. marginata by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with electroantennographic recording (EAG) from the antenna of a male H. marginata, two EAG responses were observed. Analyses by coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS) indicated these were due to 2-nonyl butyrate and a trace amount (1%) of 2-heptyl butyrate. A similar trace amount of 2-nonanol was detected in GC-MS analyses but this compound did not elicit an EAG response when the synthetic compound was tested, whereas the other two compounds did. These three compounds were not observed in collections of volatiles made from male H. marginata. The 2-nonyl butyrate was shown to be the (R)-enantiomer. In field trapping tests (R)-2-nonyl butyrate was at least 10× more attractive to male H. marginata than the racemic compound, and the (S)-enantiomer was unattractive. Addition of the potential minor components individually or together at the naturally occurring ratios did not increase or reduce the attractiveness of the lure. Polyethylene vials and rubber septa were equally effective as pheromone dispensers, lasting for at least 5 weeks in the field in the UK, although laboratory tests indicated release from the former was more uniform and more likely to last longer in the field. Increasing loading of pheromone in the dispenser increased attractiveness. Traps baited with polyethylene vials containing 0.5 mg of (R)-2-nonyl butyrate are recommended for monitoring H. marginata and these are far more sensitive than water or sticky traps currently used for monitoring this pest.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: (R)-2-nonyl butyrate, chirality, wheat, traps, dispensers, electroantennography, Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, EAG
Members: Harper Adams University
Depositing User: Ms Kath Osborn
Date Deposited: 03 May 2017 15:15
Last Modified: 03 May 2017 15:15
URI: http://collections.crest.ac.uk/id/eprint/15615

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